Types of Arthritis
Osteoarthritis, commonly abbreviated as OA, and also sometimes referred to as wear and tear type of arthritis, or degenerative arthritis usually occurs as a result of the inflammation, degeneration as well as the ultimate loss of the cartilage present in the joints. Here is a brief description about some of the common types of arthritis. According to the studies conducted by the Arthritis Foundation, USA, osteoarthritis is found to be more prevalent in postmenopausal women, usually in women older than 50 years. Based on this fact, deposits of calcium, and bony growths in elderly people happens to be the major cause of this condition. Apart from this, the cartilage which gives protection to the joints in the body, also wear away with aging. Besides to repeated wear and tear of the joints, certain occupation such as heavy laborers who are involved in lifting of heavy weights, can also result in the overuse of joints, and thus can lead to osteoarthritis. Just similar to overuse of joints, even the underuse of joints for example, in sedentary persons can also cause osteoarthritis.
The presence of certain personal habits like smoking cigarettes, and consumption of alcohol is found to be directly linked with the development of osteoarthritis. Studies have reported that, there is about 5-10% decrease in the bone density by the time of menopause in a women who happens to smoke a pack of cigarettes each day throughout her adulthood, and this in turn leads to the development of osteoarthritis. Likewise, excessive consumption of alcohol, that is drinking more than three drinks each day, can also contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. In addition to this, osteoarthritis can also result due to obesity which exerts enormous strain on the joints of the body, particularly on the weight-bearing joints. Usually, hip and knee joints are affected by this type of arthritis.
Types of Arthritis
Studies conducted by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, commonly abbreviated as AAOS, reported that most commonly the joints in the hand and feet, are usually affected by rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune type of arthritis. But sometimes, elbow, shoulder, as well as neck joints may also be affected in this condition, and often joint swelling is quite remarkable. Recent studies have reported that, women in the age group of 40 and 50 are almost three times more susceptible to develop rheumatoid arthritis, when compared with same aged men. In fact, rheumatoid arthritis, commonly abbreviated as RA, accounts for approximately 1% of the global incident rates. Moreover, individuals with HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 serotypes are more liable to develop this disease, affecting mainly the synovial joints.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis:
Commonly abbreviated as JRA, is another type of arthritis, an auto-immune disease, usually affecting children and adolescents. A broad spectrum of JRA is found, but only one joint may be involved in some patients, whereas many problems may be present in others. The knee is the most commonly affected joint in JRA.
Gout is a common inflammatory etiological factor found more frequently amongst males than in females. This is a metabolic disorder of purines, and results in hyperuricemia, an excessive accumulation of uric acid in the blood. This in turn leads to the deposition of urate crystals around various joints, leading to gouty arthritis. The great toe and the knee are the most commonly affected joints in this type of arthritis.
Pseudogout, as suggested by the name, this type of arthritis causes a condition similar to gout, but the primary problem is different. Pseudogout arthritis, which most commonly involves the knee joint, is mainly caused by the accumulation of calcium deposits within the joint.
Lupus arthritis is the most common clinical feature of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, commonly abbreviated as SLE. Like rheumatoid arthritis, SLE is an auto-immune disease in which the immune system of the body damages the joints. The hands, wrists, and knees, are the most commonly involved joints in SLE.
Psoriatic arthritis, also known as psoriatic arthropathy happens to be associated with a skin disease known as psoriasis. Recent studies conducted by the National Psoriasis Foundation have reported that, this type of arthritis is found to be prevalent in almost 30% of individuals with psoriasis.
Rifabutin-induced polyarthralgia arthritis:
Rifabutin is a drug used to treat tuberculosis. Recent studies have reported that, when rafabutin is given alone in high doses, which means about one gm per day, then it can result in the development of this type of arthritis. But, when given in low doses like 300-450 mg each day, along with clarithromycin; then it has been found that, clarithromycin in fact raises up the concentration of rifabutin in the plasma, and thus increases the risk of developing this condition.
Infective or septic arthritis:
This type of arthritis is commonly caused by bacteria, virus or fungi. Some of the common bacteria which cause infectious arthritis include, gram positive microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus, and Hemophilus influenze; and gram negative bacteria such as E. coli. In some drug addicts, who use intravenous route of administration, septic arthritis is usually caused by Pseudomonas bacteria, and in sexually active males by Neisseria gonorrhoeae; and in children by Salmonella group of bacteria. The spirochete which causes Lyme disease, also results in the development of septic arthritis. Some of the viruses which cause septic arthritis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, parvovirus B19, HIV or AIDS viruses, coxsackie viruses, etc. Some of the fungi which can cause septic arthritis of the feet include mainly histoplasma infection. A rare cause is plant thorn arthritis, which is also known as plant thorn synovitis, which causes arthritis, especially of the foot joint following a puncture by a thorn.
A form of chronic inflammatory disease, also known as Reiter’s syndrome is a type of arthritis, in which the feet are commonly affected.
Certain blood disorders like hemophilia, and sickle cell anemia can cause hemorrhage within a joint causing joint inflammation, or arthritis.
This type of arthritis is a disease, which is linked with inflammation of the bowel or occurs following infection of the bowel by bacteria.